Small lesions and big diseases hide HIV risk!



 The symptoms of viral infection can be big or small. How to diagnose and treat HIV in time? Fang Zhenzhong, the attending physician of the Department of Emergency Medicine and Internal Medicine of National Taiwan University Hospital, pointed out that possible symptoms of HIV, including colds, fever, rash, diarrhea, etc., are similar to various viral infections, and can also cause uncommon and immune-related complications. For example, bacteremia caused by Salmonella infection or tuberculosis. When there are unusual infectious complications, emergency physicians may recommend that patients be checked for immune-related issues, including HIV testing. However, patients know best about HIV risk behaviors and can help physicians if they can raise them in an emergency. Assess the condition, and even detect it early and treat it correctly.

Fang Zhenzhong said that the emergency room will also come into contact with patients with unknown risk of infection, such as sexual assault cases. As long as they are explained in the emergency room, they will assist in the detection of related infectious diseases, including HIV, and follow-up treatment according to established procedures. Usually, in order to avoid the risk of HIV infection, HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is used when the status of the perpetrator is unknown. Fang Zhenzhong pointed out that some medical institutions are not designated hospitals for HIV treatment, so they need to be referred to designated hospitals to receive post-exposure prophylaxis. At present, the preventive effect of such drugs is very good, but at their own expense.

Physician Hong Jianqing, chairman of the Taiwan AIDS Society, said that if there is a sexually transmitted disease, acute hepatitis or suspected immune-related problems, the doctor will recommend that the public undergo screening, including white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, and HIV test to understand the reason for the deterioration of the immune system. , to avoid latent symptoms go undetected.

Hong Jianqing said that during the acute HIV infection period, the viral load can be as high as 10 to the 8th power, which is the most infectious time. At this time, timely diagnosis and treatment are required. As long as one pill a day is taken for 4 weeks, the virus can be reduced to below 200. , to make the patient non-infectious, and to improve the symptoms of acute infection in the shortest time, restore normal immune function, and avoid infecting close contacts and medical staff.

Hong Jianqing pointed out that Taiwan's medical progress, all HIV drugs are currently synchronized with the international. In the past 3 to 5 years, there have been 3-in-1 preventive drugs, which have few side effects and good effects. In cases of sexual assault, if the HIV test is negative, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) should be administered as soon as possible within 72 hours. However, non-HIV-specific hospitals may not have medication available, and emergency departments at designated hospitals may be drug-regulated and not authorized to prescribe medication. It is hoped that the open emergency department will be able to prescribe medicines as soon as possible. In the event of an emergency, the patient can be given a prescription for three to seven days, and then referred to the outpatient department of the infectious disease department for follow-up treatment. healthy.

In addition to post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), there is also a preventive drug PrEP. Cases using public PrEP can check the medication records on the cloud drug record. If emergency patients use PrEP, they basically don’t have to worry about HIV infection. , The usage of PrEP is to take 1 pill per day, or "use as needed", that is, take 2 pills 2-24 hours before sex, and take 1 pill 24 hours and 48 hours after taking the pill, It can allow sufficient drug concentration in the body to prevent the risk of HIV infection, and the preventive effect is almost 100%, which is better than condoms.


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